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A Window into the Chareidi World

2 Av 5763 - July 31, 2003 | Mordecai Plaut, director Published Weekly








Kelm -- The Silent Furnace

by Tzvi Munk

Beis Kelm is the title of the recently published sixth volume in a series devoted to the spiritual heritage and the towering personalities of Kelm mussar. Previous volumes in the series, which is published by Machon Sifsei Chachomim, presented some of the writings of the members of this school of mussar, such as their chiddushim, notes and records of spiritual undertakings. The new volume illuminates the lives of the great men who led the Talmud Torah for the eighty years of its existence, first in Grobin and later in Kelm.

Since the yahrtzeit of the Talmud Torah and the town of Kelm is the 5th of Av, we are first presenting this account of the last years of Kelm, and plan to publish material about the earlier years during Elul.

The Final Chapter of Kelm: The Last Leaders

Two towering personalities presided over the fearsome final chapter in the story of the illustrious Talmud Torah of Kelm. They were brothers-in-law -- sons-in-law of Rav Nochum Zeev Ziv zt'l -- HaRav Doniel Movshovitz zt'l, Hy'd and HaRav Gershon Miadnik zt'l, Hy'd.

"Throughout Lithuania, I know of nobody else possessing such extraordinary abilities" -- this evaluation of Rav Doniel is attributed to one of Lithuanian Jewry's greatest minds, the Kovno Rov, the Dvar Avrohom zt'l. It reveals much about Rav Doniel's stature.

Rav Doniel was the son of HaRav Moshe Gershon Movshovitz zt'l. He was born in approximately 5640 (1880) in the town of Dubrava in the Horodno province. When he was ten years old, Rav Doniel's family moved to a town named Sidra, where Rav Moshe Gershon had been appointed rov.

As a youngster, Rav Doniel earned a reputation in scholarly circles. His study partners in Slobodka included HaRav Aharon Kotler zt'l, and HaRav Nochum Meir Tsibolnik- Karelitz zt'l (the father of Rav Nissim Karelitz, currently rov of Bnei Brak's Ramat Aharon neighborhood). On the advice of HaRav Yeruchom Levovitz zt'l and HaRav Eliyohu Lopian zt'l, Rav Doniel travelled to Kelm, where his father had learned under the Alter zt'l.

He blossomed in Kelm under the tutelage of HaRav Tzvi Hirsch Broide and HaRav Nochum Zeev Ziv, whose daughter Chaya a'h, Hy'd he married after her father's petiroh.

HaRav Gershon Miadnik was born in 5648 (1888) in Lunenitz. He embarked on his Torah career in Yeshivas Radin and was likewise directed to Kelm by Rav Yeruchom. Financial problems led Rav Gershon's family to emigrate to Canada while he was still studying in Radin but for the sake of his spiritual progress he opted to remain behind on his own in the world of the yeshivos. While in Kovno, Rav Gershon grew close to HaRav Naftoli Amsterdam zt'l, one of Rav Yisroel Salanter's great talmidim who transmitted many of his rebbe's ways and teachings to him.

From approximately 5680 (1920), Rav Doniel and Rav Gershon joined Rav Reuven Dov Dessler zt'l, in leading the Talmud Torah. The latter's departure for London in 5691 (1931), opened the final chapter in the institution's history, which came to its dreadful conclusion with the massacre of all the town's Jewish inhabitants on 5 Av 5701 (1941).

Kelm -- Gateway of Prayers

"Rav Doniel's genius in learning was famous. He was pre- eminent in every area of Torah scholarship yet he was tremendously straightforward at the same time. Roshei yeshivos and great talmidei chachomim would visit him to talk in learning. As soon as they started, mentioning a particular question, or the like, Rav Doniel would give a synopsis of the discussion in whatever gemora they had mentioned and everything would become clear."

This is the testimony of one of Kelm's last great products, HaRav Nosson Wachtfogel zt'l, who went on to become the mashgiach in Lakewood Yeshiva.

HaRav Mordechai Zuckerman ylct'a, has the following recollections of Rav Doniel's shiurim: "On Shabbos, following the tefilloh, he would teach maseches Brochos. He taught for approximately an hour and the arrangement lasted for seven years. During the summer, in the evening break, he would also teach mishnayos Taharos. Throughout an entire summer, all he got through was one perek of maseches Keilim. He displayed tremendous abilities in this study, encompassing many of Tosafos' and the Rambam's opinions and showing their source in the mishnah."

On another occasion, Rav Wachtfogel quoted what HaRav Elchonon Wasserman zt'l Hy'd of Baranovitch had said about Rav Doniel. It was Rav Elchonon's custom to spend the Yomim Noraim in the Talmud Torah of Kelm. Until the petiroh of the Chofetz Chaim, he spent this period with his rebbe in Radin.

While both Baranovitch and Radin were situated in Poland, Kelm was in Lithuania. At that time, the Polish-Lithuanian border was sealed, and crossing from Baranovitch to Kelm was no simple matter. Yet Rav Elchonon always made a point of getting to Kelm for the Yomim Noraim. When he was once asked why he used to leave the Torah center that he himself headed and travel to Kelm, he replied that he had a tradition from the Chofetz Chaim zt'l that the gateway of prayer in this world -- through which prayers ascended Heavenward -- was in Kelm.

Following the Yomim Noraim, Rav Elchonon would visit Yeshivas Telz, which was close to Kelm and where he had learned himself in his youth. "Why do you chase Reb Doniel so?" he was once asked on one of his visits to Telz.

Rav Elchonon replied, "In the haftorah for Shabbos Rosh Chodesh we read, 'So says Hashem, "The heavens are My throne and the earth is My footstool. Which is the house [large enough] that you shall build for Me and which is the [fitting] place of My repose? And all these [the heavens and the earth] My Hand made and they came into being," says Hashem. "Yet upon this shall I gaze, upon the poor and broken spirited, who trembles over My word," ' (Yeshayohu 66:1- 2).

"This means that Hakodosh Boruch Hu created all the worlds -- and the heavens and all they contain are His throne, while the earth with its vast oceans and depths is merely His footstool. If we ask [since such vastness is merely His Seat], what then has importance in the Creator's eyes? With what does He occupy Himself? What engages His attention? The novi tells us that it is, `the poor and broken spirited, who trembles over My word.' Hakodosh Boruch Hu occupies Himself with the person who diminishes himself, who plays himself down, who is humble in spirit, who fears his Creator and cleaves to Him. This is the type of person upon whom Hakodosh Boruch Hu focuses His attention and His thoughts, devoting Himself to all his various needs. This is how Hakodosh Boruch Hu behaves towards all His pious ones, each of them according to his own level.

"If Hakodosh Boruch Hu passes His time with Reb Doniel, who is a paramount example of the type of person that the novi is describing, then wherever Reb Doniel is, Hakodosh Boruch Hu is to be found and that is where I go."

The Last Moments

When the Alter of Kelm zt'l fell sick and grew extremely weak, he considered closing down the Talmud Torah, which was then situated in Grobin. He sent Rav Yisroel Dovid Dessler zt'l, grandfather of HaRav Eliyohu Eliezer Dessler zt'l, to Germany, to consult with his rebbe, HaRav Yisroel Salanter zt'l. Rav Yisroel's verdict was: "Closing the Talmud Torah would be akin to destroying the Beis Hamikdosh."

The day nevertheless came when Heaven sealed the decree of destruction of this great edifice. The account of Kelm's last moments retains all its power and horror, even when compared with other grim contemporary tales. A witness who escaped from one of the pits into which the victims fell after having been shot related that they said vidui before setting out on their last journey. Afterwards, they sang Oleinu leshabei'ach. The leaders of the Talmud Torah marched at the head: Rav Doniel, Rav Gershon and their disciples. With them walked the town's rov, HaRav Kalman Beinishevitz Hy'd. The murderers gave Rav Gershon a sefer Torah to hold, which fell into the pit with him.

Rav Doniel was given permission to deliver words of parting. He spoke about sanctifying Hashem's Name and about the duty to utilize this great opportunity to give up one's life lovingly in order to sanctify Hashem. He mentioned the piyut which describes the deaths of the ten Sages who were murdered by the Romans, where we read that the Seraphim cried out, "Is this Torah and its reward?" A voice replied from Heaven, "If I hear one more sound I will turn the world into water. It is a decree from before Me. Accept it, those who occupy themselves with the Law."

What reply was this to the question that had been asked -- Is this Torah and its reward?

In fact, at that point the world no longer had any merit in which to continue existing and it should have been wiped out completely. Since Hakodosh Boruch Hu had promised never to bring another flood however, the ten martyred Sages were chosen so that their deaths would atone for the entire world. If the Seraphim were to prevent the implementation of the decree with their argument, there would be no one to atone for the world and there would be no alternative but to turn it into water.

With this, the very last shmuess in the history of Kelm came to an end.

From there, they marched to the pits in the forest, cleaving to Hashem and singing Adon Olom and Ato vechartonu. The singing grew stronger as they sang, Ashreinu mah tov chelkeinu . . .

The town's gentiles stood watching the procession in astonishment. The calm and tranquility with which their Jewish neighbors were marching towards the ultimate horror, were utterly incomprehensible to them. The murderers themselves were also stunned by the spectacle but were oblivious to its spiritual splendor; at any rate, it did not deter them.

Which writer can find the correct words to describe how Kelm successfully and calmly guided its disciples along the path, from the shtender where Torah was studied in purity, to the burial pits that filled with rivers of blood?

HaRav Efraim Oschry concludes his essay on the destruction of Kelm with the lament, "Kelm, Kelm! Where is the poet that can portray the beauty of your life? Who is qualified to sing the song of the purity of your death?"

Perhaps the victims had some relationship with their murderers after all. Both parties stood at extremes of human moral attainment.

Thus ended the bitter encounter between the highest of the morally high and the lowest of the depraved, bestial low.

Still Unconvinced

Eliyohu Hanovi confronted his generation with the question: "Until when will you sway between two possibilities?! If Hashem is [the true] G-d, follow Him. And if Baal is, follow him!" (Melochim I 18:21).

When the fire descended from Heaven to Mount Carmel and consumed the burnt offering on the altar, the wood, the earth and dried out the water in the moat, "All the people saw and fell on their faces and said, `Hashem is G-d! Hashem is G-d!' " (pesukim 38-9).

I heard from the gaon and tzaddik HaRav Doniel of Kelm nishmoso Eden, Hy'd, that their faith was not perfect even then. The proof is that they said, `Hashem is G- d!' twice. Had they been certain, they would only have said it once.

(HaRav Shlomo Wolbe)

Like Gold

HaRav Gershon Miadnik was the ultimate in calm and tranquility. He would spend hours sitting on his own in an attic in the Talmud Torah, utterly immersed in Torah study. Once or twice in a zman, he would deliver a shiur that he had heard in Radin from HaRav Naftoli Trop zt'l.

The even temper and peace of mind that he succeeded in reaching were astonishing. A talmid recalled Rav Gershon's custom to lead the tefilloh on Hoshanoh Rabboh. When he reached the request, "Save, please, souls from panic," an especially emotional note was discernible in his voice.

HaRav Mordechai Zuckerman describes Rav Gershon's calm spirit: "He never lost his tranquility. He would travel from Kovno on a bus that ran once a day, in the morning. Rav Gershon always came out at the same time. On one occasion, when the bus arrived early, he still proceeded at his regular pace, without rushing or panicking, even if it meant cancelling his trip to Kovno that day."

Each night, before retiring, Rav Gershon would engage in a spiritual reckoning, examining everything that he had done in the course of the day. A friend, who once stayed with him in Kovno in a building that belonged to the Talmud Torah, related how he saw Rav Gershon reckoning up all the dealings he had conducted that day with various people. This friend said that Rav Gershon reviewed everything that he had said in conversation and every piece of advice that he had given.

"Man," Rav Gershon once said, "is like gold. With a little cleaning and polishing, one can see just how he gleams and shines."

A Letter from Rav Dessler to his Son About the Destruction of Kelm

B"H, Yom Chamishi, Noach 5706

My children, who dwell in the hidden [recesses of] my heart, may Hashem heighten your welfare,

I received your letter several days ago. My dear son, your communication, based on what they wrote to you quoting N.'s daughter, is dreadful and terrible. It is devastating; who can absorb it?

Hakodosh Boruch Hu had one corner in His world -- a place where truth resided in our times, where there was concealment and modesty, where people went about life unobtrusively together with Hashem. There were many that passed through that place without getting to know it. They noticed nothing special about it, for people in general do not notice the [quiet,] self-effacing truth. Even the great among them, who go about with a great clamor, are far too small to distinguish the level of genuine truth. They cannot perceive the depth of [those] hearts that cleave to Hashem . . . "Hashem is not to be found in the noise" (Melochim I 19:11-12) . . . but among those who are in the place of the thin, silent sound, who flee . . . to the limits of their power, from hearing! Within them though, the truth can be found -- truth unadulterated by falsehood, truth that is not sinking in a sea of utter vanities -- the clean, pure truth. And they were successful in hiding their deeds and in concealing their greatness; nobody knew them and nobody recognized their worth. Thus the truth became a secret, which was revealed only to its own folk . . .

There was a small town called Kelm. Who is reminded by its name of the splendor of the light of truth? [Only] a handful of precious souls. And which of them understood its worth? Virtually not a single one!

There was a house in that town that was known as "The House of the Talmud Torah." Does anyone know that it was a holy and awe-inspiring place, whose each and every corner was filled with truth? All its rabbonim and talmidim, all its holy and self-effacing members, who concealed their worth very well . . . so much so that it was not encountered -- and this itself was their worth.

Those who knew, always said: "This holy house will stand forever, until the redeemer arrives, for such was its builder's prayer to his King, in holiness." But this did not happen. Once the fearsome decree of destruction had been made, it did not endure. The catastrophe touched this holy house too. Why -- for what reason? Because of the sins of the generation . . . On account of sin, even the Beis Hamikdosh itself didn't continue standing, so how could a Mikdosh in the Diaspora remain intact?

Yet, the destruction of this house was unlike the destruction of all the rest. Not all demises are the same. There are different types of death. There is the death of the already dead, the coarsened, whose soul is buried inside its body even during its imaginary life. And lo! When it departs, it leaves behind the devastation and the vanity that it always [truly] was. The body is finished and the soul is burned and they both become ashes, just as they were dust during their supposed life. They were nothing and they are nothing. What, in fact, does such a death amount to? To the destruction of imagination, as the posuk says, ". . . and all wickedness, in its entirety" -- body and soul -- "shall disappear like smoke" -- look at where it was and it is gone!

The deaths of men of truth are different. The whole idea of destruction has no relevance to them. Their outer covering falls away but their inner content continues to live and endure, since it is "a portion of Hashem above." The very outermost layer, like the mantle of Eliyohu, drops away, but whatever was imbued with holiness, ascends Heavenward; it is no longer a raiment because there is holiness in it -- it was and it remains holy.

"Yaakov Ovinu did not die," because Yisroel live eternally. Eliyohu's stormy ascent becomes a spirit of life, in double measure, for Elisha. The principle is: Whatever has absorbed truth does not die -- it simply divests itself of its outer garment and ascends to a Heavenly level, becoming stronger and clearer. Chazal say, " Tzaddikim are greater in their deaths than during their lifetimes" -- their inner content is greater; their teachings are greater; their lives of truth are greater -- the everlasting life that is within them.

How did these big-hearted giants, these seekers of truth, die? I remember bygone years, on Simchas Torah nights in the Talmud Torah, when its rabbonim left its portals for the street, encircling the town, dancing with all their might in joyful excitement and singing powerfully, "Ashreinu mah tov chelkeinu (Happy are we; how good is our portion)."

Forty years passed . . . the hour of the terrible destruction arrived. The rabbonim and their families gathered in the Talmud Torah and poured out their hearts in prayer, begging for mercy before He who is full of mercy. But . . . the portals of Heaven were closed . . .! And at the gates . . . here were the murderers . . . They took every man and woman, and every child as well, out into the street and made them run through the city, while being pushed and beaten constantly with wicked blows . . . where to? To the killing field.

Who can imagine what those elevated souls did at that time? They took heart and strengthened their spirits. They became excited by the opportunity to fulfill the mitzvah of giving up one's life al kiddush Hashem, that had come their way. Instead of weeping and wailing, they danced in circles with all their strength and sang that very same song with all their might, "Ashreinu mah tov chelkeinu . . . ashreinu (Happy are we to be Jews. Happy are we to be meriting to die for being Jews . . .)"

Thus they danced, and their joyful excitement grew stronger and stronger, and greater and greater, through the obstinacy and persistence of holiness . . . until they reached the town's outskirts . . . arriving at the killing field . . . where . . . they handed over their souls to their Maker, as they cleaved to Him with the bond that comes from the joy of fulfilling a mitzvah.


The paths of truth are profound, very profound; who can find them? For this reason, not many are acquainted with them, save for the select few, men of integrity.

Many people ask and wonder, what was gained from all those deaths? Had their killing arisen from a religious decree, had they sacrificed their lives to sanctify Hashem's Name -- that would be one thing.

But these murderers were not interested in faith. They wanted to destroy and annihilate believers and nonbelievers alike. They wanted to kill them all simply because they were born Jewish. What was the purpose in that? The victims were not even given the chance to sanctify Hashem's Name publicly! In that case, why, what for? A weighty problem indeed.

But men of truth know the explanation. No attempt at forcing apostasy was intended here. Neither was the purpose to sanctify Heaven's Name before the gentiles. Instead . . . it was something even more difficult, the most difficult thing of all . . . a colossal task that has no parallel . . . the trial was, to see who was honest in his heart -- who would sanctify Hashem within himself and direct his heart wholly and entirely towards Hashem, leaving no part unaffected. [It was to see] who would genuinely rejoice in the dreadful deathly suffering . . . [experiencing] complete happiness, that comes from the joy of cleaving to Hashem.

Yes, this was the highest purpose. This . . . is the service of the period of the birth pangs of Moshiach['s arrival]. Even tanoim and amoro'im, men of supreme holiness, were afraid in their hearts that they might not fulfill their duty in the service of chavlei Moshiach and they therefore prayed, "Let him -- Moshiach -- come but let me not see him" (see the Maharal, whose explanation this is). [Yet] in our present, weak generation, our great men and men of truth attained this level of integrity. They withstood the fearsome trial with which Hashem tested them. Thus, they clung to the Shechinoh in purity and integrity.

Chavlei Moshiach is a time of clarification, when Hashem will pick out one person from an entire city and two from a family, who truly belong to Him. For them, the worlds were created. He will pass on to them a life of truth and their portion shall be one of eternal happiness.

(Michtov MeEliyohu vol. III, pp. 346-8)

To Those Who Long for His Kindness

An extract from a letter sent in 5691 (1931) to London by HaRav Reuven Dov Dessler to his son, HaRav E. E. Dessler (from The Alter of Kelm and His Talmidim)

I would like to expand on a profound and broad topic. I want to gain a little understanding into what prayer is.

When the world was first created, all vegetation and grasses were made and were positioned at the opening of the ground, [but] lacking the ability to grow. They didn't grow because Hashem had not yet made rain fall. The reason for that was that, "there was no man to till the earth" (Bereishis 2:5). As yet, nobody existed who recognized the benefits of rainfall. When Odom came and realized, and knew that the world needed rain, he prayed for it. Then rain fell and the trees and the grasses grew.

This seems quite amazing. Does Hakodosh Boruch Hu need man's prayers and his reminders?

The purpose of creation is to give benefit. Here, certain creations stopped as they were about to appear and waited for prayer. What is it in the nature of prayer that caused this?

Tefillos -- Instituted by the Ovos

The Creator loved and cherished Avrohom Ovinu greatly. He gave him the power to bestow every type of blessing as he wished. He promised him that he would be perpetuated through Yitzchok. When the time came for Yitzchok to marry, Eliezer was despatched on his quest -- Eliezer stood and prayed. All matches are in Hakodosh Boruch Hu's hands. "Forty days before an unborn child is formed a bas kol goes out and declares, `Ploni's daughter is for ploni' "(Sotah 2). Yet when the time came, it needed prayer.

Yitzchok marries Rivka. He is to be the continuation of the chain. Through him the promise made to Avrohom that he would father kings, is to be fulfilled. Years pass and they are barren -- Yitzchok gets up and prays.

He carries an explicit promise from the omnipotent Creator -- yet he beseeches.

Without Prayer, No Deliverance

In all these cases, those offering prayers were answered and without their prayers -- they would not have been answered!

Moshe Rabbenu was chosen to lead Yisroel out of Egypt. He was sent to redeem the nation yet he remained heavy of speech.

Why wasn't his impediment healed? "The correct reason appears to me to be," writes the Ramban (Shemos 4:10), "that Hashem said to Moshe Rabbenu, `Who gave man a mouth . . . Not I, Hashem?' I have the power to heal you; now [though] since you do not want to be healed and you have not prayed to Me for it" -- you have not been delivered!

For Heaven's Sake Too

It is not only in personal matters that prayer is needed -- it is necessary where Heaven's honor and sanctification are concerned too. Achov and Izevel killed all the prophets of Hashem, except for Eliyohu and the hundred prophets whom Ovadiah hid in the cave. Izevel supported eight hundred and fifty false prophets who led the people astray. Was there any limit to their success in misleading?

It is enough to note that Eliyohu Hanovi -- who brought the dead back to life, the appearance of whose face in a dream is a good omen, whose mantle worked wonders after his ascent to Heaven -- was unsuccessful in influencing them for the good. Even three years of drought and famine during which there was no dew or rainfall, three years of lack of food, that forced the king to roam around in search of a little grass with which to revive himself, only served to deepen his conviction that Eliyohu was -- a troublemaker for Yisroel, who was to blame for all the problems. And Achov was no fool. Neither was Eliyohu an anonymous, unknown quantity. He survived from a generation of giants. It was he who had been possessed by zeal for Hashem's honor in the time of Yiftach. He was Pinchos, who acted zealously on Hashem's behalf. Yet the commotion that the prophets of Baal generated was so deeply embedded, that nothing else made a difference.

Eliyohu Approached in Prayer

At that fateful hour, Eliyohu decided to force matters to a resolution. He decided to stand alone opposite the prophets of Baal and to bring the people to their knees and to utter a resounding cry: `Hashem is G-d!'

He repaired the altar that had been destroyed and dug a moat. He arranged wood and offered up a cow.

And then -- "Eliyohu approached" in prayer (Melochim I, 18:36-7). All the people held their breath and waited for a revelation of Hashem's glory. Eliyohu waited for a miracle that would sanctify Hashem's Name publicly -- and he needed to pray. What purpose did prayer serve in this case?

To Those Who Wait for His Kindness

Dovid Hamelech provides us with the answer: "Hashem wants those who fear Him, who long for His kindness" (Tehillim 147:11) . Rescue and salvation will come just as soon as you realize that it's not coming because of any power of yours, that it does not have to happen -- that it is all, totally and completely, kindness.

Whether it's a private or a public deliverance, whether it is for you alone, or for Heaven's honor -- everything is a gift. Everything comes through beseeching Hashem. Everything comes through prayer.

The Account of HaRav Shmuel Halevi Shechter

Based on reliable sources, HaRav Shmuel Halevi Shechter, a former talmid of Kelm, carefully recorded the last moments of Kelm in the preface of his edition of Orchos Chaim LeHoRosh:

"From what we know, when the accursed Germans entered Kelm on the twenty-seventh of Sivan, 5701 (1941), all the people of the Beis HaTalmud left the home in Kelm and found refuge in a small village that was three kilometers from Kelm. It was on the estate of Reb Shimon Asher. The routine of the home continued there until Yom Shelishi of parshas Chazon, which was the fifth of Av, 5701.

"On the morning of that day Rav Doniel related that he had a dream that they are required to give themselves over al kiddush Hashem. Almost as he was still speaking, the Germans . . . entered the estate of Reb Shimon Asher and seized all of them. The accursed Germans immediately led all the people of the Beis HaTalmud . . . by way of the town to a pit outside of town. They carried Moras Nechomoh Libah [the oldest daughter of the Alter of Kelm zt"l] in a chair on their shoulders and marched while singing Oleinu Leshabei'ach and Adon Olom. The non-Jews lined the sides of the town's road and stared at the scene -- bursting with hatred."

HaRav Shechter's preface continues with the following quote from other reliable sources: "At the time that the Jews of the town were already standing at gun point by the side of the pits, HaRav Doniel Movshovitz asked of the German who was in command of the work that he be permitted to say some words to his congregation for a few moments. The wicked German told him to be brief.

"The Rov began to speak quietly and calmly on the subject of kiddush Hashem -- as if he were lecturing on a normal day before his talmidim. When he took too long, the German shouted at him to finish. Then the Rov faced the Jews who were standing at the edge of the pits and said, `We are now faced with the situation that I have just spoken about, that is, kiddush Hashem. Therefore, do not panic. It is necessary to accept serenely the gezar din.'

"Then he faced the German and said, `I have concluded. You can begin.'"


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